عنوان مقاله [English]
Bronze alloy was used in making a variety of metal objects including different kinds of weapons a long time before Iron Age II (1500-550 BC). In Iron Age II, with the widespread use of iron, many weapons were made using the combination of bronze and iron. Among the weapons of this period, there are swords with a distinct pommel, a two-part split in the shape of earlobes, intersecting cuttings, a three-part hilt (pommel, grip and guard) and a blade with a 90-degree angle called ear pommel. These swords were normally made from iron and bronze with the techniques of hammering and molding, the blade and bolt were from iron, the grip was from bronze, and the guard was in the shape of a reverse U or Y. In the middle of the pommel, several splits and round raised parts form a space similar to a saddle and the margin between the blade and guard were attached to each other with a soft weld. This study has been done using field study of data to examine technology and types, and library and comparative studies. Technical qualities, cultural and geographical sphere of production, the time span of usage and morphology of handles and blades were studied. The present study used a collection of 30 swords with ear pommel handles from the collections of Mostazafan Foundation’s museums. The results indicate that the swords were made and polished in Iron Age II and the cultural sphere of north, northwest and west of Iran to Caucasus. Nine main types were recognized based on morphology and difference in length, width and raised parts of the middle of the blade and the differences in pommels and handles and hand guard, and types 1 and 2 have been divided into 2 subdivisions.
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