عنوان مقاله [English]
The San Rossam crypt is located in the Hozmanvand Gorge, on the west bank of the Jezman River, on the nomadic route that passes through this gorge. This nomadic route connects the northern plains, namely Halashi and Mayasht (Mahidasht), with the southern areas, namely Holeylan and neighboring areas, and is of strategic importance. San Rossam is a type of free crypt. This crypt has a rectangular cube shape and its entrance is facing north. The Jezman River flows from the south and behind it. This issue, along with other factors, such as the fact that it was created next to the nomadic route, makes its use as a tomb doubtful. According to its location, it probably has had other functions. Possibly, this crypt was a place for guarding, resting (like Taq-e Gara), and grain storage, or according to local narratives, it was a religious and ritual place. Some details of this crypt, such as the entrance shape, the cradle arch, and the construction method, are similar to some crypts. Besides, the method of removing the loose parts of the rock on the sides of the cellar is similar to the methods of separating stone blocks in the mines of this area and neighboring areas. These characteristics attribute the age of this crypt to the second half of the Parthian period.
The San Rossam crypt is located on the right bank of the Jezman River, on the way between the Posht Tang Hozmanvan village (Osmanvand) and the Upper Chenar village, Jalalvand district, Kermanshah province. The geographical coordinates of this monument are 33°56’18.26”N, 47°8’20.99”E, and 1209 meters above sea level.
This crypt, sculpted in the upper part of a huge rock, is between 4.75 and 5 m high from the edge of the river terrace, 8.5 m long, and 6.2 m wide. The front (north), back (south), and eastern sides of this rock are completely carved and flattened. About 1.5 to 2 m from the northern part, which was the original face of the rock, was cut, perhaps because the rock in this part was loose and cracked. This situation can also be seen on the eastern and back sides of the rock. The loose and unstable parts were completely cut, removed, and polished to achieve the desired shape. The upper part of the crypt has been carved in the shape of a dome roof, but it seems to have been left unfinished.
The entrance is on the north side of this building and is about 50 cm higher than the cut bed of the rock. In this section, parts of the rock in the form of ridges with a width between 60 and 70 cm, a length of about 2 m, and a height of 60 cm remain. In addition, traces of holes and grooves created by sculptors to separate and cut the rock are visible on it.
The entrance frame of San Rossam is similar to other crypts of Kermanshah, such as Keykavous Sahne, Deh No, Sakavand, Sorkh Deh, Dokkan-e Davoud (Kal Davoud), Shamsabad, and Barnaaj (Farhad Kan) in Poshtkouh Bistoun. That is, it has an indented and carved decorative frame with an entrance in the middle of it. However, the entrance frame of San Rossam is only created in the front of the entrance as an indentation and lacks the elegance and accuracy seen in other crypts. In this respect, it is similar to the entrance of the Barnaaj crypt in Poshtkouh Bistoun in Harsin, and their size is almost the same. On the other hand, the sculpting style inside the San Rossam crypt, especially the corners that are not carved, is also similar to the Barnaaj crypt (see the work’s registration file 2002). The carving next to the entrance of these crypts is thought to be the place of the stone covering the entrance.
The situation of San Rossam in the Hozmanvand Gorge on a nomadic route and an ancient road from Kermanshah to Jalalvand and Holeylan is similar to the location of the crypt of Bard Asheghan in a rock that is open on all sides (Jalili, 1968: 28), Taq-e Gara in the Pataq Gorge, and Taq-e Shirin and Farhad in the Kūshk of Eyvan, Ilam. All three of these works are located next to the ancient roads. Taq-e Gara, belonging to the second century BC (Kambakhsh Fard, vol. 1, 2007: 411), and Taq-e Shirin and Farhad were built with regular and hewn stone blocks.
Discussion and Conclusion
In terms of construction, San Rossam is considered one of the free crypts. This monument was created next to one of the main nomadic routes in the Hozmanvand Gorge and on the bank of the Jazman River. From this point of view, it is challenging because the creation of a crypt for burial on the river bank has no precedent in historical periods and is not consistent with religious teachings. Other uses can be imagined for this work, such as a place to store supplies, etc. Its roof is also of the type of parabolic arches or cradle arches, which has a close resemblance to the Parthian and Sasanian period arching method.
On the other hand, the method of cutting and separating excess and loose parts in San Rossam (especially aligned pits for separation) with the method of separating and cutting stone in the House of Shirin, Bistoun, in Fratash mine (Farhadtrash), Vinsar, Chel Meran Nahr Zole Kangavar, Teng Qir Cherdavel, and other places in Fars province are similar. In San Rossam, two methods of groove and pit have been used for simultaneous removal. These rock separation and cutting methods were prevalent in the region during the Achaemenid period until the post-Sasanian period. In comparison to other crypts in the Kermanshah province, the decorative frame at the entrance of the San Rossam crypt appears notably rudimentary and rough. The frames carved on San Rossam’s façade might have served as the location for inscriptions adorned with zigzag borders. It seems that these frames were created in the later era because the use of these zigzags in the raised bar gravestones of Nowraz and Sarao Eilan in Jalalvand is similar and comparable. Based on the religious periods as well as comparing the method of cutting and removing the stone layers, the crypt of San Rossam can be attributed to the Parthian period (between the first and second centuries AD). From this period onwards, the tradition of making a crypt has faded and new forms have replaced it as a result of religious changes.
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