عنوان مقاله [English]
Even though the Medes were a prosperous people in the ancient world and involved in military, commercial and production activities, they overthrew the Assyrian Empire with the help of the Neo-Babylonians, they did not hesitate to clash with their neighbors, and they showed the power of the sword and the wealth of wisdom of the ancient Iranians in Anatolia to the Greek world. But their era is one of the least known periods in the history of ancient Iran. The lack of archeological findings, the incompatibility of classical Greek narratives with contemporary Mesopotamian documents, and the lack of a collection of local documents from the Medes have created many ambiguities in the knowledge of these people and this era. Although there have been considerations and reflections about the identity and history of materials in the last two centuries, the historiography of materials has generally been a marginal topic for researchers and many uncertainties remain unanswered. Among the most important of these ambiguities is the kingdom of the Medes and its manifestations, such as the capital and the political center. In this essay, an attempt has been made to examine the ambiguities related to the capital of the Medes and the existing approaches to this issue and possible answers.